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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

他们两个自称拥有着世界上最大的两个粉丝基础。但是周日晚上,在伦敦温布利SSE竞技场上举行的2017年欧洲音乐大奖中,Shawn Mendes夺得桂冠, Taylor Swift在她参选的五个奖项中纷纷落选。

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“写这本书的一大挑战是异性恋男人能改变一个女人的生活并使她死心塌地的看法。”
The big winners over the past year in Arizona were the construction and leisure/hospitality industries, which both added more than 10, 000 jobs. Other fast-growing sectors include business services, financial activities and education and health services.
从全国来看,上个月70个主要城市中62个城市的房价环比上涨,1个城市房价不变,还有7个城市出现下跌。

源于:repertory(n 仓库),剧目的仓库-全部剧目
adj. 连续的,继续的,连绵不断的
Xi Jinping and other leadershave made it clear that China is willing to accept a slower growth pace if thiswill allow for a more sustainable, consumer-driven expansion of its economy.Some prognosticators are quick to conclude that China’s economy will soonsignificantly slow down, especially because China’s economy has sputteredfollowing prior instances when the nation’s leaders have effected suchfundamental economic reforms (such as in 1978 and 1993).

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

预售款留存额最多下浮50% 公积金购房贷款或上浮20%

其中,在
Until now Thor has been the neglected child of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Though some liked Kenneth Branagh’s first film featuring the god of thunder, Chris Hemsworth was arguably overshadowed by Tom Hiddleston’s preening popinjay of a villain, Loki. And the second film, the humourless Thor: The Dark World, is widely regarded as the worst film released by Marvel Studios to date. So to inject new life into this sagging franchise, Marvel brought in New Zealand comedy auteur Taiki Waititi to add some Kiwi quirk. This time Thor faces down the goddess of death, played by Cate Blanchett. Thor may have the hammer, but she has the attitude. Released November 1 in Serbia and Hungary, November 2 in Cambodia and Israel and November 3 in India and Canada. (Credit: Marvel Studios)
很难想象《迷失》中若是没有杰克·谢帕德作主角,这部剧会变成什么样。大概只有编剧真的这样写了,我们才会知道答案吧。美国广播公司引进这部剧后,杰克·谢帕德这一角色本该在坠机事件中遇难,接着将由凯特在这部剧中担任更多的领导角色。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Musical theatre actors, Callabro united to become a truly talented vocal group who have gone from strength to strength.
不错,2014年完全是一场灾难,只等着引爆。在《年内股市崩盘的概率有多大?》(Doomsday poll: 87% risk of stock crash by year-end)一文中,我们分析了今年年初以来的10大崩盘征兆。之后,我们又不断发现了更多新的妖魔。它们有如嘀嗒作响的定时炸弹,来自国会、最高法院、性问题、碳排放、石油巨头、国家安全局(NSA)、国税局(IRS)、茶党式财政紧缩。接踵而至,让人无法招架。
Local farmers must love this wireless company as much as its employees do. Once a week, San Diego-based Qualcomm hosts a farmers market at two of its locations. Items sold range from traditional produce to jams and jellies. Employees with CSA veggie box subscriptions can pick up their produce packages at one of the HQ's cafés.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Vawter climbed 103 floors of a Chicago skyscraper on his bionic leg, but its designers are still working on improving it. To optimize it for everyday use, they have to make it even thinner and lighter. Its successor (the iLeg Air?) may meet the Army's stated goal for a bionic leg—10,000 steps without recharging.
  • 砍价已成为消费文化 单一品牌难以明码实价?
  • Foreign robot makers sold 103,191 robots to China in 2017, up 71.9% from a year earlier.
  • 房贷利率执行新标准 1月月供不降反升2月才降
  • 阳光城开年首战告捷 多区域喜报频传
  • Stripping out price, volumes of Chinese imports in October fell a more modest 2.6 per cent from a year earlier, according to estimates from Oxford Economics.
    坚持依法全面履职。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 央行官员:房价大跌也不会出现普遍居民负资产, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

武汉市前8个月销售新建住宅近10万套

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

48%居民预期下季房价不变

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • n. 制作人,经理人,主办者
    哈维·韦恩斯坦被指控此后将麦高恩列入了黑名单,同时雇佣莫萨德机构跟踪麦高恩,窃取她的纪念手稿。
  • Jiang Yiyi, deputy director of the Institute of International Tourism at the China Tourism Academy, attributed part of the dropoff in foreign tourists to the strengthening yuan.
    他编写出的第一款软件是个音频播放器,可以播放他偶像史蒂夫?乔布斯(Steve Jobs)演讲的音频片段,而音频来自一个乔布斯的传记,内容没有经过授权。如今达洛伊西奥笑着回忆道,软件因为音频受版权保护、性能不流畅、过于简单之类的各种原因,被苹果拒绝了。他早期设计的另外一个应用软件能让用户触摸一张木头的图片时发出敲击的声音。第三个应用则将智能手机的屏幕变成一个锻炼手指的跑步机,这一次,软件第一天便赚了120美元。
    单词brace 联想记忆:
    到现在为止,要想准确可靠地检测到铅的存在,这都是非常昂贵的,同时这也意味着要发送样品,以用于分析。
    China's movie box office revenue grew 9 percent to $8.9 billion (RMB 60.98 billion) in 2018.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 南京六成二手房被外地人买走 今年成交7.14万套 均价239万元/套
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 飞利浦发表“LED革命白皮书” 看好全球LED换装潮

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

开发活动也处于白热化。GitHub网站上的贡献者图标显示,2014年11月,对比特币主码的贡献总量处于2012年春季以来的最高值。此外,就被“分叉”的次数而言,比特币在GitHub上90多万储存库中名列第31位,“分叉”基本是指提议或正在对核心代码进行的改动。换言之,对于开发者来说,比特币风头正劲。比特币公司目前公布的空缺职位的数量,也突显了开发者的兴趣。跟踪该趋势的Bitcoin Pulse称,如今,此类空缺职位数高达105个,接近九月137个的历史最高值。
201401/272266.shtml重点单词
[smɑ:t]
你可能从未想过一根皮带可以与人工智能相结合,但Belty做到了,并使它看起来很时尚。这个belty会让你不自觉就觉得,“为什么我需要这个?”然后你想可能会是,“如果是黑客入侵,他们把它系得很紧我不能呼吸该怎么办?”第一个问题是合理的;第二个问题有些牵强,但如果它让你三思而后买这个产品,这并不是一件坏事。
国考报名将于本月24日截止,而考试将于11月27日在中国各大城市举行。
Changing minds
The upshot: The world's largest economy can still function as an oasis in a desert despite the claims of doomsayers that those days are over.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 特里萨?梅(Theresa May)依然面临着党内阻力。自由民主党(Liberal Democrats)的智者兼领导人文斯?凯布尔(Vince Cable)依然认为脱欧可能不会真的发生。
  • 广州市质监局公布3批次LED灯抽检结果:合格率100%,显中国“质”造
  • 201001/95381.shtml
    单词credit 联想记忆:
  • 佛山照明被判赔股民6000万 董事长称会坚决上诉
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • “Given the unfavourable reaction to the August depreciation, we think any further depreciation will not take place soon,” said Louis Kuijs, an economist at Oxford Economics based in Hong Kong. “In our view the October trade data keep pressure on [the government] for more domestic easing.”
    项目总成本:17.66万美元
  • 《为奴十二年》导演史蒂夫?麦奎因(Steve McQueen)在登台领奖时说:我有点吓到了。然后他微微耸肩,引用片中福音歌曲的歌词,说了句“翻涌吧,约旦河,翻涌吧”("Roll, Jordan, roll")。
    《每日经济新闻》引用一位专家的话称,银行业已经经历了一个低利润增长期,并且将持续很长一段时间。该专家表示,在过去的十几年里,银行业每年净利润增长达到35%至40%。但现在每年都不到1%,甚至有的银行都进入亏损状态。
  • Ohsumi’s research on autophagy shines a light on ubiquitous diseases such as Parkinson’s and diabetes.
    大多数汇款出自美国(1170亿美元)、欧洲(1150亿美元)和海湾国家(1000亿美元)。
  • 安娜还补充道,在巴西筹办世界杯期间,巴西人民却在遭罪。由于大型建设项目造成交通拥挤,耽误了居住在城市郊区穷人的上下班时间,她认为只有富人才会在世界杯倍感享受。
    潘通在解释这一选择时提到以下这些因素:“主张性别平等和流动性的社会运动;消费者越来越喜欢把色彩当作一种表达方式;这一代人不太在意被认定为某一种类型或遭到评判;公开的数字信息交流让我们看到颜色使用的不同方式。”
    We will take solid steps to pursue a new type of urbanization.
  • 9.The Bling Ring
    经济运行缓中趋稳、稳中向好;
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 红星美凯龙获超额认购 或以最高上限价上市 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

北京清代房屋起火 文物安全排查启动

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

元旦期间楼市局部小热 专家称降温仍是主趋势

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

新房同比价格11个月来首次转升 分化依然明显

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

卫浴业“时尚化”产品更受消费者青睐

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 该学校校友的总体满意度为95%,比伦敦商学院(London Business School)和德国WHU奥拓贝森管理研究院(WHU Beisheim)高出两个百分点。
  • 6.杰克·谢帕德差点在第一集中死去
  • 央行降息高收入者更买账 超两成计划提前置业

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 节目32 歌曲《给我你的爱》,张杰 林宥嘉
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • im不+mun=public公共的+ity→不公共→不和别人一样[得病]→免除;免疫
    楼市终于出现反弹。S&P/Case-Shiller指数显示,2012年前九个月全国房价上涨7%。与此同时,住宅建筑业正在发力,给建筑工人、承包商和建筑商带来了更多工作机会。5月份以来建筑工作增加了2.9万个左右。券商Miller Tabak & Co.经济学家威尔金森(Andrew Wilkinson)指出,建筑市场的就业环境已经明显解冻。解冻的不只是建筑业。为装修住宅的美国人提供服务的零售企业也将需要招人。[qh]
    Will a nation other than Brazil, Germany or Spain win the World Cup
  • The refugees have streamed into Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, Spain, Malta and Cyprus during 2015, with a huge majority -- over 800,000 -- arriving by sea in Greece. About 3,600 died or disappeared trying to make the perilous Mediterranean Sea crossing between North Africa and Italy.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 这是连续第二个周末,委内瑞拉的社会主义政府开放与哥伦比亚长期封闭的边界,星期日上午6点,潜在的顾客们排成长蛇阵,穿过圣安东尼奥德尔塔奇拉整个小镇。有些人租了车,从10小时车程外的城市赶来。
  • 节水型卫浴成为市场“香饽饽”
  • 在上周二晚上放学后,孙轶潇乘坐电梯回家,可是电梯突然故障停止运行。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 京沪二手房量价持续走低 买家进入观望期
  • Household substance abuse
  • 楼市真假涨:涨价多是催促入市惯用营销手段
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

红木家具制造业积极响应国家环保新政策

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 楼市调控“长效机制”雏形确立
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 市场洗牌催生商办新逻辑 北京现月销量破亿项目
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

We will accelerate the development of emerging industries.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

4月,著名电视节目主持人毕福剑的一段视频在网上流传。在视频中,他以文革时期的京剧剧目调侃国共内战,并夹杂了他个人对毛泽东和共产党的批评。尽管政府竭力阻止,这则视频仍广为流传,更有评论支持毕福剑的意见并捍卫他的言论自由。
猪肉和蔬菜价格均同比下降了逾8%。
Meanwhile, WeChat offers perhaps the greatest potential yet for Tencent to gain overseas users. Forrester analyst Bryan Wang said he has seen colleagues and friends in Singapore and India begin to appear on his WeChat contact list.
Its selection of Mr Trump neither accords with the votes cast in the election nor reflects judgment of the candidate’s merits, as desired by Alexander Hamilton.
这些弊端是很现实的,但是也有很多方法来回避它们。比如说,你可以利用你的谋生工作向雇主展示你努力工作的诚意。并且你也可以在工作之余继续找其他的好工作。
Dachis says: 2011 saw a huge bounce for Dominos in brand enthusiasm from their brand relaunch which 2012 just couldn’t match. It’s a shame they can’t redesign their recipes every year.
The top SUV maker and MPV maker last month are familiar to all: Great Wall Motor and SAIC General Motor Wuling stayed on their segment thrones. SAIC Volkswagen also maintained its crown in the sedans and hatchbacks segment.
还有些人直接就玩消失了:
The computer is a very powerful machine built with ARM processors, the kind low-power processors that run smartphones and tablets. These servers allow more computing power o be packed into a smaller space. And that has big implications for building green-but-powerful data centers."I think of myself as an entrepreneur besides just being an electrical engineer. I believe what I'm doing can have a major effective on the world," Sohmers said.He dropped out of high school to join Peter Thiel's controversial startup accelerator, the 20 Under 20 Thiel Fellowship. Thiel, the former PayPal CEO and famous Silicon Valley venture capitalist known for his early investment in Facebook, is a libertarian who has often spoken out about the absurd cost of college these days.So in 2011, he started a program that encourages kids to start companies instead of going to college. It gives them $100,000 in seed money and access to some of the Valley's greatest technologists as mentors.Sohmers is an electrical engineering prodigy who at age 13 started working at the research lab at MIT. That's where he met his co-founder and CTO, Keville, he said.
Foreign robot makers sold 103,191 robots to China in 2017, up 71.9% from a year earlier.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

建材行业流通业态发展趋势的思考

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Rouslan Krechetnikov和Hans Mayer对液体的溅出现象进行了研究。他们考察的课题是:人们在端着咖啡杯走动时咖啡的溅出情况,给你个提示吧,在你走到第七步至第十步之间,咖啡最容易溅出。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Even for an industry that generally views history as a grab bag of potential inspiration to be dipped into and mixed and matched at will, this has been extreme.
  • 南京河西4楼盘新领796套房源销许
  • 他说道:“我们也在见证一个有关多样化的积极的发展。在过去,大多数中国企业的专利申请主要集中在信息通信技术领域,但是现在有越来越多的专利申请出现在了发动机、泵体、涡轮机、汽车行业以及生物技术等领域。”
  • 家居卖场经营惨淡 广州家居流通业出奇招探新路
  • Meanwhile, he was being ferried around the globe to tech conferences, getting introduced to other potential investors. D'Aloisio made a remarkable impression on everyone he crossed paths with. 'He has an eerie maturity,' says Andrew Halls, headmaster of the King's College School in Wimbledon, which D'Aloisio has attended since he was 11. 'He has an extraordinary articulateness in the face of situations that, for me, even as a 54-year-old, might be terrifying.'

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 青岛市前三季免征电池涂料消费税2739万元
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • British statisticians’ unwillingness to correct known errors in the clothing price component of the RPI redistributes many billions every year from students, recent graduates, taxpayers and rail commuters to index-linked UK government bondholders, wealthy pensioners with RPI-linked pensions and rail companies.
  • "We have a system here in America where if something is for you and if they find it, it gets to you, that's beautiful," he told US TV station WTAE.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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